Understanding the Market
For researching the market rate for your area/experience level, try:
Hired.com puts out a State of Software Engineers report each year that is really helpful for understanding the general software engineering market. Here is the 2023 State of Software Engineers report.
Understanding Stock Options
Full disclosure: I've never worked a job that offered stock options as part of the compensation package. That being said, these are some resources I've saved for my own reference should I ever need to better understand stock options: